The second hall of the Museum; "The hall of Natural History and Prehistory" begins with three show-cases containing various fossils from different geological periods. The Karain Cave near the Yağca Village and 30 km. north-west of Antalya is the source of the majority of the artifacts here. The Karain Cave was first excavated by Professor I. Kılıç KÖKTEN from the University of Ankara in 1946. Only the portion of the fifty-meter cave has been explored so far. The cave consists of three large inter-connected spaces where finds from the Paleolithic, the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and later ages were discovered under deposits 11 meters thick. Apparently at one time the cave was used as a temple.

Displays in the Hall of Natural History and Prehistory contain examples of hand axes, scrapers made of flintstone, bone awls, burins as well as daggers and spear heads of horn. A skulls of a Neanderthal child and a number of skulls and skeletons of Homo Sapiens are displayed along with the teeth and bones of extinct animals from the Paleolithic Age. The head of a buffalo or of Elephanthus Meridionalis carved in a stone is a fine example of a small artifact.

A female fertility figurine unearthed at the Hacılar mound (in the province of Burdur), 150 km. north of Antalya, dates back to the Chalcolothic Period (5500-3000 B.C.) Hacılar originally attracted attention with the colorful, painted pottery it yielded. The highly polished handmade vessels are most striking. They are representative of the Chalcolithic Age. The decoration of these vessels (red on buff) displays a special effect, making it difficult to determine which forms the background and which forms the design.

The Bronze Age finds on display in this hall come from a site called Karataş-Semayük near Elmalı, 120 km. north-west of Antalya.
Karataş-Semayük is one of the major settlements of the Bronze Age (3000-1200 B.C.) in Anatolia. Earstuds, brush handles, bronze pins, and spearheads are some of the artifacts from Karataş-Semayük displayed at the Museum. At the end to the Hall of Prehistory there is a reconstructed pithos burial from Elmalı, as well as several decorated pots and pithoi.